Ainoa Aparicio Fenoll - Research

Fields of Interest: Labor, Education, Migration, Family Economics, Applied Econometrics

Working Papers

Immigrants move where their skills are scarce: Evidence from English proficiency (with Zoë Kuehn)
Revise and Resubmit, Labour Economics
This Version: October 2018

This paper studies whether individuals tend to migrate to countries where their skills are scarce or abundant. Focusing on English language skills, we test whether immigrants who are proficient in English choose to move to countries where many or few individuals speak English. We use the introduction of English classes into compulsory school curricula as an exogenous determinant for English proficiency of migrants of different ages, and we consider cohort data on migration among 29 European countries, where English is not the official language and where labor mobility is essentially free. Our estimation strategy consists of refined comparisons of cohorts, and we control for all variables traditionally included in international migration models. We find that immigrants who are proficient in English move to countries where fewer individuals speak English, and where hence their skills are scarce. We also show that similar results hold for general skills.

Parental Love Is Not Blind: Identifying Selection into Early School Start (with Nadia Campaniello and Ignacio Monzón)
This Version: October 2018

In many countries parents can choose whether their children start elementary school one year early. Like many other educational decisions, this choice has lasting consequences that depend on each child's characteristics. Which children are sent to school early? We propose a novel methodology to identify the sign and strength of selection into early starting. We exploit a feature of the Italian education system: only children born between January and April can start elementary school one year early. We use data on standardized tests taken by all students in Italy. We find robust evidence of positive selection: early starters would have obtained scores 0.2 standard deviations higher than the average student, had they started regularly. Additionally, we use this methodology to compare the effect of early starting on selected and average students. We find that the penalty associated with early start is lower for selected students born in March and April

The uneven impact of women's retirement on their daughters' employment
This Version: February 2018

Family support is stronger in countries with weak family policies. In this paper, I test whether the impact of women's retirement on their daughters' employment differs between countries with strong and weak family policies. Using SHARE and self-collected historical data on early and full retirement ages in 20 European countries, I find that women's retirement leads to an increase in their daughters' employment in countries with low family benefits, while the opposite is true in high family-benefits countries. The positive effect found in low family-benefits countries can be explained by a decrease in monetary transfers and an increase in grandchild care following retirement. Instead, the reduction in help with practical matters and contact with daughters can explain the negative effect in high family-benefits countries.

Bilingual Children's Advantage in Academic Performance
This Version: February 2018

There are differences between bilingual and monolingual children in executive function and theory of mind, two cognitive skills which are related to academic performance. This paper tests if the academic performance of bilingual children is better than that of comparable monolingual children. This study is novel in three ways: (1) it uses a large and representative sample of children of Latino immigrants living in the US; (2) it focuses on widely-used standardized test scores; and (3) it compares monolingual and bilingual children, taking into account not only demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, but also home and school inputs. I find that bilingual children outperform their monolingual counterparts.

Political Instability and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from the 1981 Military Coup in Spain (with Libertad González)
This Version: August 2017

Political instability produces stress, which may affect the mental and overall health of pregnant women and ultimately their children's outcomes. We estimate the impact of an episode that generated an exogenous shock to political stability, the 1981 military coup in Spain. Using birth register and election results data, we exploit the fact that municipalities with more votes for leftist and regional nationalist parties were more likely to suffer reprisals in case of coup success. Our results show that women who were pregnant during the coup were more likely to miscarriage but those born were healthier in terms of birth weight and absence of complications during the pregnancy or labor.

Recessions and Babies' Health (with Libertad González and Judit Vall-Castelló)
This Version: March 2014

We study the effect of the business cycle on the health of newborn babies using 30 years of birth certificate data for Spain. Exploiting regional variation over time, we find that babies are born healthier when the local unemployment rate is high. Although fertility is lower during recessions, the effect on health is not the result of selection (healthier mothers being more likely to conceive when unemployment is high). We match multiple births to the same parents and find that the main result survives the inclusion of parents fixed-effects. We then explore a range of maternal behaviors as potential channels. Fertility-age women do not appear to engage in significantly healthier behaviors during recessions (in terms of exercise, nutrition, smoking and drinking). However, they are more likely to be out of work. Maternal employment during pregnancy is in turn negatively correlated with babies' health. We conclude that maternal employment is a plausible mediating channel.

Media coverage: The Atlantic, March 2014



TV or not TV? The Impact of Subtitling on English Skills (with Augusto Rupérez Micola, Albert Banal-Estañol and Arturo Bris)
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Forthcoming

We study the influence of television translation techniques on the quality of English spoken worldwide. We identify a large positive effect for subtitled original version broadcasts, as opposed to dubbed television, on English proficiency scores. We analyze the historical circumstances under which countries opted for one of the translation modes and use it to account for the possible endogeneity of the subtitling indicator. We disaggregate the results by type of skills and find that television works especially for listening comprehension. Our paper suggests that governments could promote subtitling as a means to improve foreign language proficiency\ which, in turn, enhances economic performance. We also argue that the television translation mode can be used as an instrument to assess the impact of English proficiency at the macro level, as a substitute to linguistic distance, which has traditionally been used in the trade and migration literatures.

Media coverage: El País, Verne, and Marginal Revolution

Immigrant Networks and Remittances: Cheaper Together? (with Zoë Kuehn)
World Development, 2018, vol. 111, pages 225-248

We estimate the causal effects of immigrant networks on individuals' remittance sending behavior for migrants from many different countries residing in Spain. Our methodology addresses typical issues that arise when estimating network effects: reverse causality, common unobserved factors, and self-selection. In particular, we instrument the size of networks by predicting the number of migrants in each location using the location's accessibility by distinct methods of transportation and information about how migrants from each country initially arrived in Spain. Our findings show that immigrants from above-average remitting countries remit more if they live in larger networks. Testing for mechanisms of network effects, we find that these migrants are more likely to send remittances via bank transfers which suggests that large networks of individuals who remit a lot might be better at sharing information about cheaper remittance channels (bank transfers compared to money orders in post offices or agencies). In line with this hypothesis we find that due to network effects migrants shy away from the most expensive remittance channels, potentially freeing resources for additional remittances. Our results suggest that network effects could boost policy efforts to lower remittance prices.

English Proficiency and Mathematics Test Scores of Immigrant Children in the US
Economics of Education Review, 2018, vol. 64, issue C, 102-113

This paper explores whether native-immigrant differences in mathematics test scores can be accounted for by a lack of English proficiency. To identify the causal effect of English proficiency on test scores, I use the fact that language proficiency is closely linked to age at arrival, and that migrant children arrive at different ages from different countries. Using US data from the New Immigrant Survey, I find that English proficiency has no effect on mathematics tests and therefore they can be used to assess students' ability net of language effects.

Compulsory Schooling Laws and Migration across European Countries (with Zoë Kuehn)
Demography, December 2017, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 2181-2200

Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Thus, compulsory schooling laws which determine an individual's minimum level of education can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel data base that includes information for thirty-one European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950-1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9\%. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. We perform a variety of empirical tests which all indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.

Returns to Education and Educational Outcomes: the Case of the Spanish Housing Boom
Journal of Human Capital, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 235-265, 2016

This paper provides a novel identification strategy to estimate how returns to education affect school enrollment. It also explores the consequences of changes in returns to education on students' performance as measured by grade completion. The identification strategy relies on the fact that the construction sector employs mostly uneducated men and hence the Spanish housing boom significantly decreased the difference in returns to education between men and women. Results show that a 10% increase in the ratio of wages of educated to uneducated individuals leads to a 2% increase in the probability of being enrolled in school and a 0.2% increase in grade completion among 16 to 18 year-olds. These findings suggest that the influence of returns to education on educational outcomes is sizeable and wider than previously thought.

Should I stay or should I go? Sibling Effects in Household Formation (with Veruska Oppedisano)
Review of Economics of the Household, December 2016, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1007-1027

In Southern Europe youngsters leave the parental home significantly later than in Northern Europe and in the United States. These countries have implemented policies that make young adults form a new household earlier. Do peer effects among siblings modify the effects of these policies? Estimating peer effects is challenging because of problems of reflection, endogenous group formation, and correlated unobservables. We overcome these issues in the context of a Spanish rental subsidy, exploiting the subsidy eligibility age threshold to analyze sibling effects. Our estimates show that sibling effects are negative and vanish for close-in-age siblings. The negative effects can be explained by the presence of an old or ill parent while positive effects arise in contexts where imitation predominates (from older to younger siblings and when siblings are close-in-age). We conclude that policy makers should target the household rather than the individual, and combine policies for young adults together with policies for the elderly.

The Effect of Product Market Competition on Job Security
Labour Economics, Volume 35, August 2015, Pages 145-159

This paper studies the impact of product market competition on job security. I use differences between types of labor contracts to measure job security. The effect of competition on the use of different types of labor contracts is identified by changes in legislation that lead to exogenous shifts in competition. Using both worker data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey and firm data from the Spanish Business Strategies Survey, I show that job security decreases with competition. A one standard deviation increase in competition decreases the probability that a worker switches to a more secure labor contract by at least 22 percent.

Online Appendix

Fostering Household Formation: Evidence from a Spanish Rental Subsidy (with Veruska Oppedisano)
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy: Contributions, 2015, vol. 15, issue 1

In Southern Europe youngsters leave their parental home significantly later than in Northern Europe and the United States. In this paper, we study the effect of a monthly cash subsidy on the probability that young adults live apart from parents and childbearing. The subsidy, introduced in Spain in 2008, is conditional on young adults renting accommodation, and it amounts to almost 20 percent of the average youngsters' wage. Our identification strategy exploits the subsidy eligibility age threshold to assess the causal impact of the cash transfer. Difference-in-Differences estimates show positive effects of the policy on the probability of living apart from parents, living with a romantic partner, and childbearing for 22 year-olds compared to 21 year-olds. Results persist when the sample is expanded to include wider age ranges. The effect is larger among young adults earning lower incomes and living in high rental price areas. This is consistent with the hypothesis that youngsters delay household formation because the cost is too high relative to their income.

Media coverage: Nada es Gratis, July 2012

Working Women and Fertility: The Role of Grandmothers' Labor Force Participation (with Marian Vidal-Fernandez)
CESifo Economic Studies (2015) 61 (1): 123-147

Grandmothers' availability for childcare has been shown to increase the labor force participation (LFP) and fertility of daughters. However, childcare availability depends highly on grandmothers LFP status. When grandmothers work, intergenerational income transfers to their daughters may increase at the expense of time transfers (through childcare). Using a Two-stage Two-steps Least Squares estimation, we exploit changes in legal retirement ages in Italy to explore the trade-off between mothers' LFP and daughters' LFP and fertility choices. We show that when mothers are out of the labor force, they provide more childcare, and their daughters' LFP and fertility increase and decrease, respectively. While the increase in LFP is consistent with previous studies analyzing the effect of mothers' childcare on daughters' LFP, the decrease in fertility seems counterintuitive. We argue that altruistic mothers who participate in the labor force increase monetary transfers at the expense of time transfers, to their daughters, and that this can have an ambiguous effect on fertility. Thus, our results show that income effects are stronger than time transfer (childcare provision) effects when mothers' unavailability is determined by LFP.

Does Foreign Language Proficiency Foster Migration of Young Individuals within the European Union? (with Zoë Kuehn)
The Economics of Language Policy, edited by Bengt-Arne Wickstroem and Michele Gazzola, MIT Press (ISBN: 978-0-262-03470-8)

Speaking the language of the host country eases migrants' integration and tends to boost their economic success in the country of destination. However, the decision to acquire language skills may in itself be determined by the intention to migrate. In addition, conditional on being a migrant, the relation between language skills and migrants' integration and economic success goes both ways. Using data on the study of foreign languages during compulsory education in European countries, we test whether and how much language proficiency determines migration flows across Europe. The European Union with basically unlimited labor mobility and pronounced differences in youth unemployment rates provides an ideal testing ground for our hypothesis. We find that speaking the language of a country increases the likelihood to migrate to that country almost fivefold.